A homeowner's association (HOA) is an organization in a subdivision, planned community, or condominium building that makes and enforces rules for the properties and their residents.
Those who purchase property within an HOA's jurisdiction automatically become members and are required to pay dues, known as HOA fees or assessments. The HOA’s board of directors is elected to enforce and oversee the HOA's rules and regulations, which are outlined in a document called a Declaration of Covenants, Conditions, and Restrictions (CC&Rs). CC&Rs set certain conditions for owners about the maintenance of their properties. These conditions may include structural restrictions--like the type of fences or landscape allowed--or more minor aesthetic choices, such as the color of paint on a house. CC&Rs may also outline the penalties for violating the association’s guidelines.